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The genus Campylobacter, (meaning 'twisted bacteria') first discovered in 1963, describes Gram-negative, spiral, microaerophilic bacteria. Motile, with either uni- or bi-polar flagella, the organisms have a characteristic spiral/ corkscrew appearance (see photo) and are oxidase positive. Campylobacter jejuni is now recognized as one of the main causes of bacterial foodborne disease in many developed countries. At least a dozen species of Campylobacter have been implicated in human disease, with C. jejuni and C. coli the most common. C. fetus is a cause of spontaneous abortions in cattle and sheep, as well as an opportunisticpathogen in humans.